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3D打印FDM 3D 打印零件后续处理的最佳方法

2019-11-06  1958

江苏省南通工学院3D打印设备与应用重点实验室的研究员刘金金,谷海,李斌,朱璐,蒋洁,张杰等发表了一篇论文为“ FDM人工后处理技术研究”。 关于在采用FDM技术制成的3D打印零件上进行手动后处理,该零件的成型精度低,可能会导致台阶状变化。

Researchers Jinjin Liu, Hai Gu, Bin Li, Lu Zhu, Jie Jiang, and Jie Zhang from the Nantong Institute of Technology and Jiangsu Key Laboratory of 3D Printing Equipment and Application published a paper, titled “Research on Artificial Post-Treatment Technology of FDM Forming Parts,’ about using manual post-processing on 3D printed parts made with FDM technology, which has a low molding accuracy that can cause stair-stepping.

由于有“阶梯效应”,所以印刷件表面粗糙、条纹明显,不能满足指定要求,因此后续处理非常重要。本文主要总结了FDM印刷零件的手工后处理技术,并提供了后处理的具体实现方法,为FDM成型零件的后处理和其他成型过程提供参考。

“Due to the “step effect”, the printed parts have rough surface, obvious stripes, poor surface quality, and cannot meet the customer’s or specified requirements, so post-processing is very important. This paper mainly studies and summarizes the manual post-processing technology of FDM printed parts, and provides the specific implementation method of post-processing, providing reference for the post-processing of FDM formed parts and other forming processes,” the researchers wrote.

花瓶模型 The vase model

为了“进一步改善3D打印模型的表面质量和强度”,通常需要进行后处理。 对FDM成型零件进行后处理的一些较常见的方法包括:

In order to “further improve the surface quality and strength” of 3D printed models, post-processing is often necessary. Some of the more common methods of post-processing FDM formed parts include:

有机溶剂化学处理 Chemical treatment with organic solvent

热处理 Heat treatment

用砂光机或磨床进行机械处理 Mechanical treatment with a sander or grinder

表面涂层处理 Surface coating treatment

在本文中,研究人员着眼于手动后处理过程,该过程需要几个步骤才能完成,例如带有储气罐的喷笔气泵,着色笔和工具套件,手套,口罩,稀释水、溶剂,快干的填充土壤,80至3000目砂纸,清洁剂,锉刀等。

In this paper, the researchers focused on a manual post-treatment process, which requires several items to work properly, such as a spray pen air pump with air storage tank, a coloring pen and tool set, gloves, a mask, water-diluted solvent in a solvent bottle, quick dry small fill soil, 80 to 3000 mesh sandpaper, a cleaning agent, a file, and others.

该团队使用PLA材料和Einstart 3D打印机制作了一个后处理花瓶模型作为示例。 花瓶打印完成后,他们从打印机上取下了带有模型的盘子。

The team fabricated a post-treatment vase model as an example, using PLA material and an Einstart 3D printer. Once the vase was printed, they removed the plate with the model on it from the printer.

左:模型完成的打印 Model finished printing  右:拆除支撑 Demolition of support

“用铁铲将模型从底板上平稳地移开,然后检查是否存在应变集中模型,用小的剥线刀先将模型和支架旋出,然后再用长钳子夹紧方向支架,将微小支架用锉刀移除。”

“…the model is smoothly removed from the bottom plate with a shovel, and then to check whether there is strain concentration model, relatively weak parts with small first stripping knife to spin out the model and the support, and then has a long nose pliers clamping a direction support, applying a constant force, the location of the tiny support can use the file to remove,” they wrote.

为了清理粗糙的表面,研究人员指出,您可以使用低目数砂纸进行打磨和抛光。模型和低目数砂纸应浸入水中并沿模型纹理进行打磨,因为这既可以延长砂纸的使用寿命,又可以使模型表面光滑。

To clean up a rough surface, the researchers noted that you can use low mesh sandpaper to sand and polish it. The model and the low mesh sandpaper should be immersed in water and sanded along the model’s texture, as this can both extend the sandpaper’s life and smooth out the model’s surface.

然后,他们继续使用一种称为快干填充的技术,该技术涉及在模型的间隙中添加少量填充材料。 然后,用硬刮刀将填充物均匀涂抹。

Then, they moved on to a technique called quick dry small fill, which involves the addition of a small amount of filling material to gaps in the model; then, the fill is evenly daubed with a hard scraper.

左:均匀涂抹小块土壤 Apply small patch of soil evenly   右:抛光使其光滑 Polished to make it smooth

研究人员写道:“在填满土壤硬化后,等待30秒,使用1200目至1500目砂纸,右图所示仍然有细小的凹槽,请重复上述步骤。” “要在没有大面积需要填充土壤的凹槽之后,进行下一步。”

“Then wait for 30 seconds, after filling soil has hardened, using 1200 mesh to 1500 mesh sandpaper in, as shown in figure 8, If there are still tiny grooves and repeat the above steps,” the researchers wrote. “To be in addition to the groove after no large-area fill soil, feel smooth, can proceed to the next step.”

下一步是喷水。首先,先用水冲洗模型表面,然后使用喷壶填充土壤,然后再用无纺布擦拭模型并在“通风位置”喷涂,保持喷嘴距离约20厘米,并快速均匀地喷涂1至3次。

The next step is spray can water fill soil spraying. First, the model’s surface should be washed with water, and then the spray pot is used to fill the soil, before the model is wiped with a non-woven cloth and sprayed at “the ventilated position,” keeping the nozzle at about 20 cm and uniformly spraying the model one to three times, quickly.

该团队解释说:“通常,选择灰色的喷雾水来填充土壤,因为灰色是一种中性色。”

“Generally, choose gray spray pot water to fill the soil, because gray is a neutral color,” the team explained.

高目砂纸研磨 High mesh sandpaper grinding

喷完水并填满土壤后,进行空气干燥。在进入着色阶段之前,沿一个方向应用2000-3000高网孔砂纸进行“轻微研磨”。

Once the water is sprayed and the soil is filled, air drying takes place. Then, 2000-3000 high-mesh sandpaper is applied for “slight grinding” along one direction, before moving on to the coloring phase.

抛光和加工过的模型应先清洗和干燥后再施加颜料。可以使用喷枪添加基本色或覆盖模型大部分区域的颜色。需要以1:2的比例稀释颜料进行喷涂,并且在喷涂时调整注气量。

The 3D printed, polished and processed model should first be washed and dried before pigments are applied. A spray gun can be used to add either a base color or one that covers a large area of the model; you’ll need a 1:2 ratio of diluent to pigment for spraying, and you should be able to adjust the amount of air injection while you’re spraying.

“可以使用不同厚度和大小的刷子来绘制细节。” “可以使用笔在图形的详细部分上绘画,也可以使用不同宽度的盖带进行覆盖,然后再喷涂绘画。”

“Brushes of different thicknesses and sizes can be used to paint the details,” the team wrote. “It is accessible to use 00000 pens to paint the detailed parts of the figures, or use different widths of the cover tape to cover and then spray the spray gun to paint.”

油漆和喷漆完全干燥后,您可以在模型上均匀喷涂防护漆。研究小组将B603水性消光剂用于3D打印花瓶。

Once the paint and spray paint have dried completely, you can uniformly spray protective paint on the model; the research team used B603 water-based extinction for their 3D printed vase.

该团队还分享了一些有关使后处理过程平稳运行的注意事项,例如使用软件减少不必要的支撑结构数量,在印版上涂一层薄薄的胶水以防止变形,以及观察印版的重要性。

The team shared a few more notes on making the post-treatment process run smoothly, such as the importance of using software to reduce the amount of unnecessary support structures, coating the print plate with a thin layer of glue to prevent deformation, and observing the model while it’s being printed.

花瓶在加工后完成 The vase is finished after processing

“其次,在手工后处理中应着眼于防护工作,水磨机是最好的模型加工方式,要耐心从高到低目数的使用砂纸磨。” “在混合颜色时,应该事先了解明暗关系,各种颜色的亮度和纯度,冷暖颜色选择等。”

“Secondly, in the manual post-processing should look to the protection work, grinding water mill is the best way to model processing, be patient, 80-2500 mesh, use each mesh sandpaper required time from long to short, low mesh sandpaper grinding along the texture of the model, high mesh sandpaper grinding should be turned around,” the researchers concluded. “When mixing colors, you should understand in advance the relationship between light and shade, brightness and purity of various colors, warm and cold color selection, etc.”

他们指出:后处理方法的“难度”以及方法本身可能因不同的3D打印技术而有所不同–适用于FDM的方法不一定适用于SLA,依此类推。

They noted that “the degree of difficulty” for post-processing methods, and the methods themselves, can vary with different 3D printing technologies – what works for FDM may not necessarily work for SLA, and so on.



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